Биология - Астровирусы - Эпидемиология

08 февраля 2011


Оглавление:
1. Астровирусы
2. Симптомы
3. Эпидемиология
4. Профилактика



A study of intestinal disease in the UK, published in 1999 determined incidence as 3.8/1000 patient years in the community, the fourth most common known cause of viral gastroenteritis. Studies in the USA have detected astroviruses in the stools of 2-9 % of children presenting symptoms; illness is most frequent in children of less than two years, although outbreaks among adults and the elderly have been reported. Early studies carried out in Glasgow demonstrated that a significant proportion of babies excreting virus particles, 12 %, did not exhibit gastrointestinal symptoms, and seroprevalence studies carried out in the US have shown that 90 % of children have antibody to HastV-1 by age 9, suggesting that infection is common. There is, as with most viral causes of gastroenteritis, a peak of incidence in the winter.

Humans of all ages are susceptible to astrovirus infection but children, the elderly and those that are immunocompromised are most prone. The majority of children have acquired astrovirus antibodies by the age of 5 and looking at the pattern of disease, it suggests that antibodies provide protection through adult life, until the antibody titre begins to decline later in life.

Astroviruses are associated with 5-9 percent of cases of gastroenteritis in young children. The occurrence of astrovirus infection varies depending on the season. In temperate climates infection is highest during winter months. This is in contrast to tropical regions where prevalence is highest during the rainy season. This seasonal distribution of infection in temperate climates is rather puzzling. But the seasonal distribution in tropical climates can be explained by the impact of the rain particularly on breakdown of sanitation in developing countries.

The main mode of Astrovirus transmission is by contaminated food and water. Young children in childcare backgrounds or adults in military barracks are most likely to develop the disease.



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